According to the article, the authors describe the
semantic web (SW) by using eXtensible Markup Language (XML) technology is able
to provide an effective Military Decision Support (MDS). The authors are
focusing on the three main components of MDS which known as cooperative command
and control (C2), situation awareness, and military knowledge base.
the cooperative C2, the authors point out that the semantic heterogeneity is a
serious problem in MDS which will cause the strong barrier between the two
parties. They noted that the problem is normally caused by a different person
has a different understanding and express fashion for the same semantic. They suggest the semantic interoperation must be
implemented between two parties. By using the ontology language such as
Resource Definition Framework (RDF) and Web Ontology Language (OWL), they observe both parties will able to exchange
information with the agreed vocabulary which guarantees the same interpretation
between both parties.
the situation awareness, the authors present that how fast is the military
environment can be understood by the Commander within the time and information
available. Due to the problem on cooperative C2, they argue that there is a
possibility that the wrong information will be transferred between the level of
information transfer. Due to this problem, they suggest
the SW can use to minimize the problem by using the common situation
understanding across all the parties. This means that all the meaning from
multiple sources will express in the formalize pattern automatically. Not only
that, they also highlight the SW able to provide the ontology relation to
helps the Commander to locate the situation information easily. This will allow
the Commander have a clear and quick overlook to make the correct decision. Furthermore,
they point out that the SW provides knowledge extraction, knowledge consistency
checking, logical reasoning based on predicate logic, and machine learning
capability. This can help the machine to deduce all the possible conclusions
that allow the Commanders to focus on the main problem.
the Military Knowledge Base, the authors identify the future warfare will be
based on knowledge. Therefore, they argue that a knowledge base (KB) will
provide all the knowledge from the military domain is important. They noted
that the current KBs are based on the paper document, there is a possibility
that the inconsistent knowledge will be shared between different parties. They suggest constructing
a structured KB based on the SW because SW provides the several benefits.
First, they suggest to combined the SW with the advantage of Natural Language
Processing (NLP) to extract the documents automatically and check the
consistency before adding to the structured KB. Secondly, they highlight the
features of SW which provide an
attractive and smarter knowledge acquisition experience to the users. The users
are allowing to get the information instantly and correctly with navigation
capability. Third, they highlight the SW allow the KB to answer the questions
in natural language. Not only that, the KB are allowed to learn the new
knowledge automatically by interacting with the users. Thus, the answer will be
either based on the past experience or
new learned from the users by interaction.
The major conclusion of this article was that the SW can
be used to solve many critical problems in MDS effectively. However, the
authors point out that there are some open questions need to solve and test in
the future research.