ABSTRACT- Many nations rely on common resources of the oceans for boosting up their economic power. As such, the access to the ocean is free and allows the States to enjoy the facilities, which can be derived from the ocean. More than 80 percent of the world’s trade travel through the water and this provide a global linkage. This method of transportation is a very cost effective medium for cargo transportation. Today’s
control the GSM module and the GPS receiver to track the locations and to deliver the message.
2. Major Technologies Hardware/Software
Wireless communication has become an advantageous means of communication as it could be designed and implemented whenever and wherever required and also efficient functioning could be obtained. The GSM module and the GPS receiver has its own advantages in the field of wireless communication for sending and receiving
of the information.
The main objective of our paper is to develop a tracking system for boat, which can be used for real time application to avoid fishermen crossing the borders. The main features of the paper are GSM to send message or information to the control room or other authorized persons and GPS control systems in order to track the locations of the boat used by the fishermen .This system determine the latitude, longitude i.e. Position of the vehicle in the globe
using GPS system by sending a message from our mobile by using GSM module that has been efficiently designed. The PIC 16F877A Microcontroller has been programmed to
the fisherman boat riders making huge problem to the governments due to traveling of other countries border. There are several measures, which have been taken by the countries to ensure maritime safety and security, the new battle of humanity is the enemy from nowhere and everywhere. This is the challenge of the century for the whole world. The use of maritime route of communication is a favored means to execute such impact. The terrorists have developed effective attack capabilities.
Global Positioning System (GPS) Receiver
Keywords-GPS,GSM, PIC microcontroller,navigation,wireless communication, mobile communication.
Fig:2 Block diagram
. GPS receivers use the satellites of the US Global Positioning System. The satellites continually send information to the earth, and the receiver takes information from four or more satellites to determine its position. Anyone who is going to spend time outside can benefit from a GPS receiver. A GPS receiver “knows” the location of the satellites, because that information is included in satellite transmissions. By estimating how far away a satellite is, the receiver also “knows” it is located somewhere on the surface of an imaginary sphere centered at the satellite. It then
determines the sizes of several spheres, one for each satellite. The receiver is located where these spheres intersect.
B. GSM System.
Fig3. the structure of a GSM network.
The GSM technical specifications define the different entities that form the GSM network by defining their functions and interface requirements. The GSM network can be divided into four main parts: Mobile Station A Mobile Station consists of two main elements: The Subscriber Identity Module (SIM): It is protected by a four-digit Personal Identification Number (PIN). In order to identify the subscriber to the system, the SIM card contains amongst others a unique International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI). User mobility is provided through mapping the subscriber to the SIM card rather than the terminal as we done in past cellular systems. Base Station Subsystem provides the interface between the ME and the NSS. It is in charge of the transmission and reception. It may be divided into two parts: Base Station Controller (BSC): It controls a group of BTSs and manages their radio resources. A BSC is principally in charge of handoffs, frequency hopping, exchange functions and power control over each managed BTSs. Base Transceiver Station (BTS) or Base Station maps to transceivers and antennas used in each cell of the network. The main role of NSS is to manage the communications between the mobile users and other users, such as mobile users, ISDN users, fixed telephony users, etc. The different components of the NSS are MSC: the central component of the NSS. The MSC performs the switching functions of the network. It also provides connection to other networks. GMSC: A gateway that interconnects two networks: the cellular network and the PSTN. It is in charge of routing calls from the fixed network towards a GSM user. The GMSC is often
implemented in the same machines as the MSC.HLR: The HLR stores information of the subscribers belonging to the coverage area of a MSC; it also stores the current location of these subscribers and the services to which they have access. The location of the subscriber maps to the SS7 address of the Visitor Location Register (VLR) associated to the MN.VLR: contains information from a subscriber’s HLR necessary to provide the subscribed services to visiting users. When a subscriber enters the covering area of a new MSC, the VLR associated to this MSC will request information about the new subscriber to its corresponding HLR. The VLR will then have enough data to assure the subscribed services without needing to ask the HLR each time a communication is established. The VLR is always implemented together with a MSC; thus, the area under control of the MSC is also the area under control of the VLR.Authentication Center (AuC): It serves security purposes; it provides the parameters needed for authentication and encryption functions. These parameters allow verification of the subscriber’s identity. Equipment Identity Register (EIR): EIR stores security-sensitive information about the mobile equipments. It maintains a list of all valid terminals as identified by their International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI). The EIR allows then to forbid calls from stolen or unauthorized terminals (e.g, a terminal which does not respect the specifications concerning the output RF power).GSM Interworking Unit (GIWU): The GIWU provides an interface to various networks for data communications. During these communications, the transmission of speech and data can be alternated. Operation and Support Subsystem (OSS) It is connected to components of the NSS and the BSC, in order to control and monitor the GSM system. It is also in charge of controlling the traffic load of the BSS.
C. Embedded C.
The embedded C language is used to program the PIC micro controller. Using this language the latitude and the longitude is tracked and stored in the microcontroller and message will be sent to the appropriate persons when the fishermen’s boat crosses the safer zone.
D. Embedded Integrated Development Environment.
The embedded integrated development methodology is employed here to integrate the GSM modem, GPS module, PIC microcontroller and other components used in this paper. The various components are first palced independently and are combined and programmed using the Embedded integrated technology.
3. Block Diagram
Fig:1 Block diagram
The simplified block diagram representation explaining about the complete architecture and functioning of the boat navigation system is clearly given above. Each and every components in the architecture is integrated with the PIC microcontroller as described in the earlier block. The functioning of each block used in the architecture is clearly explained below.
3.1 The Functioning Global Positioning System
In this paper the main use of the GPS receiver is to track the position of the boat in which the fishermen travels. The latitude and the longitude of the boat will be tracked by GPS receiver and will be stored which determines the appropriate position of the boat. The latitude and the longitude of the safer zone and the area under problem will be already stored in the PIC microcontroller which is programmed in such a way. The GPS receiver continuously tracks the latitude and longitude of the boat and the position of the boat is continuously monitored.
3.2The functioning of the GSM module.
When the boat crosses the safer zone i.e. the latitude and the longitude that has been already stored, as per the PIC microcontroller programmed, the GSM modem sends the message to the appropriate persons that the boat has crossed the safer zone and alerts the fishermen that he is in trouble so that the fishermen will understand that he is in trouble and does the precautionary steps in order to safeguard him. The message will be sent to the numbers that has been prestored or preprogrammed in the PIC microcontroller. The message can be sent to any count of
numbers, but the numbers must properly store to receive the message.
3.3 The PIC microcontroller
Fig.3 The PIC microcontroller
The PIC microcontroller used hers is the PIC 16F877. The reason for selecting the PIC microcontroller IC is that it can be used for many purposes and it can be easily programmed and also can be reprogrammed if required. The PIC microcontroller here is used to integrate the GSM modem , GPS receiver, LED and the BUZZER and the other components that are used for the proper functioning of the navigation system. The PIC microcontroller here is completely responsible for the operation of the GSM modem and the GPS receiver. The microcontroller is programmed in such a way that it properly communicates with the integrated devices. The latitude and the longitude that has been tracked by the GPS receiver will be properly in the PIC microcontroller. The Mobile numbers to which the message has to be sent to alert the fishermen will also be stored in this PIC microcontroller only. Hence the PIC microcontroller is programmed in such a way that when the fishermen’s boat crosses the safer zone and enters the
danger zone proper messages will be sent to appropriate persons intimating that the fishermen is under trouble.
The area under target is divided into four regions respectively. The fourth region is considered to be the danger area, and all other regions are considered to be the safer zone. The Latitude and longitude of this different areas is tracked and recorded using using the GPS receiver. Each region is represented by a LED in the fishermen’s boat. The PIC microcontroller is programmed in such a way that when the fishermen’s boat crosses each regions respective LED will glow. When the fishermen’s boat crosses the final danger area the final LED will glow giving a buzzer sound and also sends a message to the control room and the fishermen to alert him that he has crossed the safe zone and he is under trouble so that the fishermen could safeguard himself. All this actions will be controlled by the PIC microcontroller which will be appropriately programmed.
This paper concludes that the endanger of fisherman`s life can be saved. We can monitor the boat navigation through wireless and the port trust can easily control the unwanted entry of boat to the neighbor’s country. In future this could even be advanced by using the
3G and 4G technology. Using advanced technologies wide area could be covered and messages could be sent to many users and also messages could be sent in a faster rate. Video communicating can also be performed using the advanced internet technologies.