Abstract. soil fertility. Introduction of organic and

Abstract.

In recent decades, farms in the region have been
facing decreases in soil fertility. Introduction of organic and mineral
fertilizers has reduced sharply. At the end of last century, 10 t/ha of organic
fe rtilizers and 83 kg of mineral fertilizers per hectare of arable land were
introduced on the average. Currently, 10 t/ha of organic fertilizers, and 30 kg
of mineral fertilizers per hectare are introduced. Chalking of acid soils and
gypsuming of sodic soils have been minimized. Due to the reasons above, most
farms in the region (65-70%) have medium efficiency in farming. However, during
the state variety test, intensive varieties are still preferred, which in the
farms with medium efficiency in farming ensure the possible yield of 30-40%, thus,
ecology-plastic varieties of the semi-intensive type are needed. The Odessa
100, which consists of two biotypes, belongs to such varieties.

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Studying varieties Acha (standard) and Odessa 100 by
various predecessors showed the advantage of the latter variety in terms of the
yield and grain quality over the standard by the grain predecessor. Biotypes of
the Odessa 100 variety are similar in terms of morphological traits, but differ
in biological properties, which advantageously complement each other. The successful
blend of the first and second biotypes ensures ecological plasticity and
stability of the variety.

During seed farming of grade Odessa 100, it is
important to keep the 50:50% biotypes ratio in the seeding. Otherwise, the
variety will start deteriorating. In primary seed farming, it is necessary to
separately multiply each biotype, and during the production of super elite
seeds, to combine them in equal amounts. The genetic stability of the grade
should be monitored with the use of the method of electrophoresis of reserve
protein, gliadin.

 

Keywords:
barley, grade Odessa 100, seed farming, electrophoresis, biotype,
productivity, protein, adaptability.

 

Introduction   

            Barley
is an early ripening yielding cereal crop. With development of cattle breeding,
importance of barley increases (Sidorov 2016; Svirkova and Balaganskii 2015).
Its planting acreage in the Tyumen region is 143 thousand hectares, the average
yield is 2.4 to 2.6 t/ha. The maximum yield of the best intensive type grades
on grade-testing areas reaches 7 to 8 t/ha. At advanced farms it is fulfilled
by 60-70%, and at ordinary farms – by 30-40%. It should be noted that the share
of ordinary farms with the medium efficiency in farming in the region is 60-70%
of their total number, therefore, they need ecology-plastic varieties of the
semi-intensive type (Aniskov and Popolzukhin 2010; Kazak 2014; Loginov 2015).
These grades often differ from the intensive ones by the presence of two or
more biotypes in the genotype. They are more resistant to stress factors.
However, semi-intensive grades are rarely included into the register of
selective breeding results, while in farms with medium efficiency in farming,
the ROI from multibiotic grades is higher, compared to single-biotic ones
(Loginov 2015; Popolzukhin 2008; Firsova 2015). Multibiotype grades include
many grades of barley, including grade Odessa 100.

During the first decade after the grade had been included
into the register of selective breeding results of the Tyumen region, it had had
the advantage over many grades, but after that, the grade started decreasing
the yield and showing other negative symptoms. Seed farming for the grade was
performed with the use of the old method of visual selection of elite plants,
which resulted in strong reduction of one biotype. As a result, the grade
had lost its economic value and was removed from zoning.

This study is aimed at defining the commercial value
of grade Odessa 100 biotypes and finding the shares in seed production that
would ensure the maximum and sustained productivity of the grade against the
average nutrition background.

 

Materials
and methods.

            The studies were performed
in 2011 to 2015 in the experimental field of the State Agrarian University of
Northern Trans-Urals. The soil was leached black soil, heavy loamy in terms of
particle size distribution, with medium nutritional elements supply, the
reaction of the soil solution was 6.7 (Shakhova 2016; Eremin 2016; Eremin 2017).
Predecessors were annual grasses and wheat. For annual grasses, fertilizers
were introduced in the quantity of 7 t/ha in terms of the estimated yield, for
the wheat predecessor fertilizers were not introduced.

Sowing was performed with seeding machine SSFK-7 in
the optimum period with soil temperature of +10-+12?C, the
seeding norm was 5.7 million germinating grains per hectare, plot size – 30 m2,
reference plot – 25 m2, experiment repeated four times, plots were arranged
randomly. The register grade Acha was taken as standard.

Observations and accounting were made according to the
method of the State Variety Testing of Agricultural Crops (1985). Leaf area and
photosynthetic productivity were determined by the method of A. A.
Nichiporovich (1963). The number of biotypes was studied by electrophoresis
according to the method of Bushuk, Zillman modified by Metakovsky, Novoselskaya
(Bushuk 1978; Metakovsky 1991). Environmental plasticity was studied by the
method of S. F. Eberhart and W. F. Russell (Eberhart 1966).

 

Results

            Grade Odessa 100 was
obtained at the Ukrainian Breeding and Genetic Institute by hybridization of
line 774/74 (USGI selection) with line Hadmersleben 36462/64 (GDR breeding),
followed by individual selection of the parent plant from the second generation.
Nutans variety. Mid-season, ripens in 64-73 days, the straw has medium height
(80-90 cm), resistant to lodging. It is moderately affected by powdery mildew
and smut. The disadvantage of the grade is the presence of undergrowth and
uneven ripening. It was included into the register of breeding results of the
Tyumen region and entire Siberia in 1988.

According to the results of electrophoresis, the grade
contains alleles of loci HzdA2+12, HzdB8, HzdF2, and consists of two biotypes
(Figure 1); both biotypes are mostly similar morphologically, but differ in
their reactions to stress factors, thus advantageously complementing each
other.

Figure 1
– Electrophoretograms of hordeins of grade Odessa 100

 

The first drought-tolerant biotype has well-developed
root system, the seeds germinate with 6-7 embryonic roots, the secondary root
system is well formed. In the second biotype, the stated indicators are lower.
Leaves of plants of the first biotype are arranged at the angle of 45-60o
relative to the stem, and absorb solar energy better than the second biotype,
where leaves leave the stem at the angle of 70-90, overhang and shade the lower
leaves. The straw has medium height, like the second biotype, but is less dense
and lies down with the yield of 5t/ha. In addition, plants of the first biotype
are more affected by powdery mildew and dusty smut. The second biotype is more
hydrophilic, it has the strong straw that is resistant to lodging, it is
resistant to diseases, ripens well at low temperatures in wet years, it is
resistant to grain falling and ears breaking. Due to the second biotype, this
grade is resistant to lodging and is less affected by diseases. Manifestations
of main indicators of biotypes of the Odessa 100 grade may be judged upon from
the data in Table 1.

 

Table 1 –
Indicators of biotypes of grade Odessa 100 barley in years 2011-2015

Grade, biotype

Vegetation period, days

Plants height, cm

Leaf area, thousand m2/ha

Net productivity of photosynthesis, g*m2/day

Affection by, %

dust-brand

brown rust

Acha, standard

76±3

69±5

31.7±0.9

5.3±0.4

0.2

6.4

Odessa 100 – 1st biotype

74±2

71±3

28.5±0.6

6.1±0.2

4.8

13.6

Odessa 100 – 2nd biotype

78±3

70±2

32.9±1.1

4.9±0.7

0.6

3.5

 

The data in Table 1 (Note 1) show that the vegetation
period of the second biotype is 4 days longer than that of the first biotype,
therefore, the ripening period of grade Odessa 100 is prolonged. There is no
difference in the height of the plants. The second biotype had a well-developed
leaf area – 32.9 thousand m2/ha, which is 4.4 thousand m2/ha
more than that of the first biotype. Plants of the first biotype are more
affected by dust-brand and powdery mildew.

In the conditions of the Tyumen region, it is
important to reach high germination of barley and to keep the plants for harvesting
(Figure 2). The noted economic features are closely correlated with the yield
(r = +0.76-0.81).

Figure 2
– Field germination and keeping the plants for harvesting (%), 2011-2015

 

The maximum field germination during the years of the
study was noted for the first biotype of grade Odessa 100, which amounted to
82%, but during the summer period, due to diseases and pests, this biotype
showed high percentage of plant death. However, it should be noted that the
plants of the first biotype have stronger bushes, compared to those of the
second biotype, and form more productive stems per 1 ha before harvesting.
Productive tillering of this biotype is genetically determined, and has been stable
over years.

The main economic indicator of the studied biotypes is
productivity (Figure 3).

Figure 3
– Productivity of biotypes of the grade Odessa 100 barley against various
backgrounds of food (t/ha), 2011-2015

 

Figure 3 shows that against high background of
nutrition, productivity of the second biotype is 1.2 t/ha higher than that of
the first biotype, and 1.0 t/ha higher than that of the standard grade. Against
the low background of nutrition the first biotype has advantage.

Stable yield is one of the main indicators of the
grade in the conditions of the market (Table 2).

 

Table 2 –
Stability of yield formation by biotypes of grade Odessa 100 barley (Note 2)

Grade, biotype

Productivity, t/ha

Average, (yi)
 

Plasticity, (bi)

Stability (s2d)

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

Acha, standard

1.9

1.6

2.5

2.8

2.7

2.30

0.75

0.10

Odessa 100 – 1st biotype

0.4

2.7

3.1

2.9

2.8

2.38

1.63

0.40

Odessa 100 – 2nd biotype

1.6

1.3

1.9

2.2

2.5

1.90

0.62

0.12

Average

1.30

1.87

2.50

2.63

2.67

2.19

 

 

Ij

-0.89

-0.33

0.30

0.44

0.47

 

 

 

 

To calculate the coefficient of linear regression bi,
indexes of the environmental conditions Ij must be specified.

In the aggregate, the indicators characterize
variability of the conditions in which biotypes of barley are cultivated.
Indicators of the environmental conditions may take positive and negative
values. The best conditions for growth and development of the genotypes are formed
with the positive value of the environment index, the worst – in case of
negative value (Eberhart1966).

The most favorable conditions for growth and
development of the studied biotypes developed in 2013, 2014 and 2015. The
environmental conditions’ index (Ij) was positive: 0.31 to 0.47; the worst
conditions were observed in 2011: Ij = -0.89, and 2012: Ij = -0.33 (Table. 2).

The linear regression coefficient of the productivity
of the standard grade and studied biotypes bi
shows their reaction to changing the cultivation growing. The first biotype
was more responsive to changes in the conditions of cultivation; the regression
coefficient (bi) was more than unity. In the second biotype and the standard
grade Acha, the index of environmental conditions was less than unity, which
meant that they had weak reaction to improving the growing conditions.

Figure 4
– Spring barley productivity regression lines

 

Standard grade Acha and 1st biotype of grade Odessa
100 were the best in this set (Figure 4). They are characterized by reaction to
improving the growing conditions, as indicated by the steep regression line. In
the conditions of severe stress, 2nd biotype of grade Odessa 100 reduces its
productivity yield, but even in these conditions, its lower threshold is higher
than that of the grades obtained during the early years of zoning.

Depending on the ratio of biotypes and the nutrition
background, productivity of grade Odessa 100 barley is formed (Figure 5).

Figure 5
– Productivity of grade Odessa 100 barley (?) with various ratio of biotypes (%), 2011-2015

 

Barley is cultivated mainly against the medium and the
low background of nutrition. With that, against the average background of
nutrition, ratio of the first biotype to the second one of 25:75% ensured the
maximum productivity – 3.3 t/ha. Against low background of nutrition, the grade
gives the maximum yield (1.9 t/ha) when the ratio of the biotypes is 50:50%.

Primary seed farming of grade Odessa 100 by visual
selection of elite plants has resulted in decline of the second biotype, and
the grade started losing its advantage rapidly. Therefore, primary seed farming
of multibiotype seed grades should use a more advanced method,
electrophoresis of the reserve protein, hordein.

Biotypes of grade Odessa 100 differ not only in
germination, plants preservation for harvesting, indicators of photosynthetic
activity, and productivity, but in protein content in grains, too (Table 3).

 

Table 3 –
Protein content in grains of grade Odessa 100 barley against the average
nutrition background, 2011-2015

Grade, biotype

Protein, %

Average (yi)

Plasticity, (bi)

Stability (s2d)

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

Acha, standard

10.9

13.7

11.2

11.6

9.5

11.4

1.12

0.05

Odessa 100 – 1st biotype

10.2

14.5

10.3

10.9

9.1

11.0

1.51

0.15

Odessa 100 – 2nd biotype

12.4

13.1

12.8

12.0

11.6

12.4

0.37

0.14

Average

11.2

13.8

11.4

11.5

10.1

11.6

 

 

Ij

-0.42

2.18

-0.15

-0.09

-1.52

 

 

 

 

On average over the five years of research, protein
content in the grains of the second biotype has been 12.4%, which is 1.4% above
the value of the first biotype and 1% higher than that of the standard grade
Acha.

Figure 6
– Protein content regression lines in grains of biotypes of grade Odessa 100
barley

 

In 2012, the most favorable conditions for protein
accumulation in grain of spring barley were formed, the index of environmental
conditions (Ij) was positive and amounted to 2,18; during other years the index
of environmental conditions was negative (Table 3).

The first biotype and the standard grade Acha were
more responsive to changes in the conditions of cultivation; their regression
coefficient (bi) was more than unity. The second biotype was characterized by
weak reaction to improving growing conditions.

In this set, the best were standard grade Acha and 1st
biotype of grade Odessa 100 (Figure 6). They are characterized by reaction to
improving the growing conditions, as indicated by the steep regression line.

 

Conclusion

Applying electrophoresis to storage protein hordein in
grains of grade Odessa 100 barley has shown that the grade consists of two
biotypes which complement each other in terms of economically valuable
characteristics and biological properties. The ratio of 50:50% ensures high and
stable productivity of the grade against the moderate nutrition background.
Seed farming of multibiotype grades of barley varieties should use the method
of electrophoresis, which will extend their “life” in the production,
and allow obtaining the maximum economic benefit.

 

Notes

1.     
Predecessors are annual
grasses.

2.     
Medium background of
nutrition

 

References

1         
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P. V. (2010). Yarovoi yachmen v Zapadnoi
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2         
Bushuk W. (1978). Wheat
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2(58), 505-515 

3         
Eberhart, S.A. (1966).
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5         
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7         
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8         
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9         
Loginov Y. P. (2016).
Importozameschenie zernovih kultur v Tyumenskoi oblasti Import substitution of
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10      Metakovsky, E.V. (1991). Gliadin allele identification in common wheat.
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