Abstract Pakistan. The major shift in US


The post-cold war era brought an end of the bipolar world, and the
longstanding policies were replaced by the new world order led by US and its
allies. New-fangled transformation from the old concept of two super powers was
now substituted with the new agenda of global policies, and the world politics
was redefined with new the strategic realignment. The relations between
Pakistan, India and US were also redefined keeping the ground realities and
strategic needs of the countries. After the defeat of USSR in Afghanistan US
emerged as a sole power and accordingly dealt with the old partner Pakistan.
India being bigger in size and more close to the American creed was given the
higher status as compared to Pakistan. The major shift in US policies was
observed just after the dismemberment of USSR, both the countries (US and India)
were now closer to each other and measured to look after the strategic interest
of each other, not only in the region but globally. India being technologically
advance and rival of the emerging China in the region was the best suited to
take the advantage of current situation. Pakistan suffered due to the shift in
the US policy which further aggravated the situation after Pakistan’s alleged
involvement in nuclear proliferation. US imposed sanctioned against Pakistan, per
Presslers amendment and an arm’s embargo was placed, and the country was barred
to import the military hardware which severely impacted the defense
capabilities of Pakistan. Pakistan now looked for another strategic partner in
the area and china being the old trusted friend could be seen to fill the gap
and rheostat the withered away Pak US- relations.

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Key Words

 Pak US-relations, India, Pakistan-China
bilateral relations, Cold-War, post-Cold War, South Asia, Structural

Significance of the Research

This research will elaborate the shift in US- Pak relations after
the post-cold war era viz a viz India and its direct and direct impact on Pakistan. The research will be conducted under the
model of realism and in the context of different school of thoughts and the
relevant impact on Pakistan.


End of the cold era, brought transformation in
approach of the United states of America in south Asia with special reference
to US-  Pakistan and India’s relations,
and transformation within the United states of America’s external strategy outside
state and the new world order were the main segments of new US policy. 


This research analysis is qualitative in nature. Secondary data has
been acquired; data includes books, journals, and articles.

Theoretical Frame work

The theory of
Structural Realism will be applied to highlight the strategic relations between
US and India especially after the end of cold war and its implications on
Pakistan. Per structural realists the international political system has an
influencing power on the states and their responses and behavioral change
basing on ground realities. To safeguard the state’s interest and to pursue
with the defined objectives in making the foreign policy all options are always
kept open, and in state of anarchy and threat-perception among the states which
creates a security dilemma and desired shift in the foreign policy at times leads
towards the arms buildup and power maximization exercising the option of
foreign policy shift.1

For structural realists,
from the human nature it is evident of the causes to achieve influence. As a
substitute, the strategic compulsions and advance gains pushes states to
preserve maximum influence. The contemporary world and its politics works on
the realist model. In this essence, politics revolves around the interests of
the states. In this paradigm, there is no security states would not have perils
from other states. After the apparent shift in US policy towards Pakistan, the
country felt to maintain the balance of power at least against its arch rival. The
country had to struggle on all fronts including the socio-economic components and
continue to buildup military muscles and explore other options outside the US

The Indo-US relations represents the booming culmination and
acceptance of India’s mission to achieve a desired place in modern
international politics in accordance with its existing geographic and populace
size including the potential power capabilities. The relation could be analyzed
using offensive realism as the investigative paradigm. Superior powers will always guarantee unsurpassed
advance to make certain safekeeping is to accomplish domination.2

The US foreign policy towards Asia at the end of frosty
conflict and its shocks


The United States of America and the state of Pakistan’s alliance
became officially ended, albeit the initiatives of the ties remained reflective
towards many European affluent stakeholders predominately the United States of
America. The former Soviet Union’s intervention in Pakistan’s neighbor
Afghanistan further strengthened the ties of Pak-U.S. During this period,
current U.S administration gave offer for the huge amount which was refused by
the dictator. With the change in regime in the United States of America in 1981,
Pakistan’s leadership became willing to receive bulky amount of $3.2 bn. The
amount was to be distributed proportionally in both military and in civil
government for later more than five years. Later, due to strategic compulsions
of U.S, the latter provided bulky amount to Pakistan to consolidate its market
and defense. The congressman Larry passed a resolution in the U.S congress in
the year of 1985 against the motives of the Pakistan to acquire nuclear
arsenals and conditioned the further aid with consensus of the president of the
United States of America. However, during the cold war both the Senior Bush and
Ronald’s administration allowed or certify Pakistan for further aid to
outbalance Soviet Union. As the Soviet Union collapsed, the U.S administration
felt that they have no more compulsion to pay Pakistan hefty amount even they
are developing nuclear weapons.

South Asia is a region that on
the path to becoming the main economic and military region of the world, that
is why the US interest in region affects the formation of their foreign policy
in the region. In South Asia Pakistan and India stand out as two firmly holding
top positions in the region and claiming regional leadership. Cooperation with
Pakistan and United States during the Cold War was of apolitical/ tactical in nature,
and Pakistan was considered as a strong ally and US was acting as a kind of
guarantor for its security against the India to purse it policy since Pakistan
was an important ally in restraining the Soviet-Union in the region.US
relations with India in the period the cold war was restrained. In the recently
declassified White Directive At home in 1984, for United States, both India and
Pakistan was strategically important during the Cold War era.3 The main
intentions for that epoch were; the support of Pakistan was declared since an
important ally in the South Asian continent. The stress is in US foreign policy
in South Asia was made on the non-proliferation of nuclear arsenals since individual
of the mainly stern hazard on the way to inhabitants’ aegis and prosperity.4The
first changes in the Clinton administration in thein South Asia occurred in May
1994, when Narasimha Rao, the Prime Minister of India, visit to the US, the
first time since the visit in 1987 by R. Gandhi.

This meeting helped to discuss several issues, including economic and
trade cooperation as well as human rights issues and nuclear non-proliferation.
Proof of the priorities of the Clinton Administration in South Asia was also
indicated by the private visit of the President Pakistan’s Farooq Leghari in
Washington, which was pro-ignored by US officials. The result of the visit of
US Secretary of Defense Perry to South-Asia was the signing of an agreement
with the minister defense of India on the creation of a military-political
order, firstly, to revise the strategy after the Cold War, and secondly, to
ensure that the military to increase the scale of military theories.5The
US’s close attention to South Asia also explained by the situation that has
developed in the cold war. The crisis associated with India and Pakistan,
attracted attention of the international community for decades. This
confrontation worsened the desire of states to possess nuclear weapons, which
in turn could lead to destabilization of the whole region. Moreover, as per several
researchers in the early 1990s. India had two dozen nuclear devices ready for
quick assembly and transportation to military bases, and Pakistan could quickly
assemble nuclear weapons.6

George W. Bush became president in 1989
when the cold war ending and soviets were dis-integrating. Thus, the withdrawal
of soviets from Afghanistan region decreased the strategic importance of Pakistan
for US but then again President Bush continued to balance relation with
Pakistan. President Bush hosted Benazir Bhutto at united stated and further
enhanced ties and agreed to sell 28F-16fighterplanes to Pakistan and recommended
congress to allocate $ 380 million for economic and $ 250 million for military
aid to Islamabad.  The logic behind the
aid was that the government in the Kabul was strongly backed by the Soviet
Union. Moreover, the other reason behind this sagacity was to contain the
Russian influence by working with Pakistan.

In 1990’s due to the nuclear
development in Pakistan, United States imposed sanctions on Pakistan but on the
same time US realized the importance of Pakistan in the gulf war, therefore, US
department of defense tried to maintain cordial relations with Pakistan. Thus, United
States sold selective spare parts and equipment to Pakistan.7

The impact of the Cold War on the conflict in Kashmir

Ethnos political and religious
conflict in Kashmir originates in the colonial past of Hindustan. Mutual claims
and claims of both India and Pakistan did not diminish to the possibility of
conducting a peaceful dialogue. The beginning of the Indo-Pakistani conflict
coincided with the time of the Cold War. It was the aspects engage in
recreation vital function in the pestering of the Kashmir cause. After the end
of the succeeding global battle, the division of states into two camps, headed
by the USSR and the United States, began. The Indian subcontinent, because of
its geostrategic position, for many years was the area of ??power struggle and
for influence between the communist and capitalist camp. Superpowers could
contribute to strengthening not only the economic, but also the political
situation of one and the other side in the region. For the United States,
Pakistan was a bulwark against Soviet expansion, for Pakistan the States were
the prospect of victory in Kashmir. The main objective of Pakistan’s external course
of action was to strengthen its ties with European powers in general and U.S
specific. To achieve this, motive, Pakistan increased its activities in SEATO
and CENTO or Bagdad accord to prove its allegiance to these powers. Since the
mid-50’s. and for a whole decade Pakistan was, of the President of the State,
M. Ayub Khan, “the most loyal American ally in Asia” associated with
the United States “with not one, but four agreements on mutual security
Entering SEATO, and then the Baghdad Pact, military-political cooperation with
the US had a serious impact on the development of socio-economic and political
processes in Pakistan. On May 19, 1954, Pakistan and the United States of
America signed an accord named joint aegis accord. Under this agreement, the US
pledged to supply Pakistan with weapons, military equipment and supplies, as
well as send military advisors to that country. The government of Pakistan, in return,
has undertaken to supply raw materials to the United States. In October 1954,
during a visit to Washington, the Prime Minister of Pakistan and the
commander-in-chief of the Pakistani army were acquainted with the American
plans for military assistance. For 3 years, it was supposed to allocate for
this amount of 171 million dollars. For fiscal year 1955, it was planned to
provide military assistance to Pakistan in the amount of $ 50 million. The
document, which recorded the size of US aid, the timing of supplies and the use
of Pakistan by American weapons was signed by the representatives of the two
countries on 11.01.1955. Having achieved Pakistan’s accession to the blocks of
CENTO and SEATO, as well as pursuing a policy that upheld the interests of the
West and the capitalist path of development, by the early 1960s, dramatically
changed the nature of assistance. They no longer needed to attract the ruling
circles of Pakistan to their side, to carry out an unfriendly policy toward the
Soviet Union and other socialist countries. Interested in external support in
the dispute with India, Pakistan strengthened its alliance with the United
States by signing in March 1959 an American-Pakistani agreement on
military-political cooperation. Under this agreement, the US agreed to
cooperate with Pakistan on security issues and defense needs. During the third
Indo-Pakistan war, the US State Department stated that India was primarily
responsible for the war. After the unsuccessful war for Pakistan, the U.S
changed the dimension of its external policy in the continent of Asia due to
changing position of Pakistan after war with its arch-rival. On the other hand,
India’s international prestige has strengthened. Thus, the emphasis in US
policy in South Asia shifted: while maintaining the previous level of relations
with Pakistan, Washington recognized India’s leadership in the region. In
general, Pakistan was strongly dissatisfied with Washington’s position
regarding the crisis in the subcontinent. In Islamabad, it was believed that
the US support to Pakistan was inadequate and ineffective. Later, on December
14, 1971, the State Department issued a special statement, in which it was
noted that the 1959 agreement provides for US assistance to Pakistan only in
case of communist aggression. In the 70-ies. Pakistan broke with the system of
aggressive military-political groups – in 1972 Islamabad decided to withdraw
from SEATO, and in March 1979 – from CENTO. Despite these factors, it did not
change the dynamics of the ties among the U.S and Pakistan and military Coup by
Zia-ul-Haq was the core reason behind collaboration at all tiers. India
believed that dictatorial regimes are unstable, which in turn leads to
increased internal tension, penetration of foreign hostile forces in the region.
Multifaceted were the consequences of the late 70’s, when the American military
presence in the Indian Ocean and the Persian Gulf expanded. India was concerned
about the discovery in 1978, jointly constructed by Pakistan and China in the
Pakistani part of the state of the high-mountainous Karakorum Highway, which
was also used to supply Chinese weapons to Pakistan.

Post-Cold War Us Policy on Kashmir Issue.

At another level, India was steadily making a
decent attempt to influence the world to trust that the Kashmiri battle is a
piece of hostile to America worldwide jihadi system. Various western countries
and the United States of America remained rigid to comprehend the disagreement
since 1990s. Be present toward make possible since it might diverse inner growths
resistant the intuition that the Kashmiri’s struggle be the same fraction of comprehensive
terror campaign.

America well
thought-out, during August 1998, Osama Bin apprehended accountable in favor of frequent
assaults on the sovereignty of the consulates in Tanzania Nairobi and Kenya. During
reprisal, America ablaze more than a few motor missiles lying on Osama Bin
Laden base sanctuary inside Afghanistan plus Sudan on Aug 1998. There was few
Media hearsay suggested to facilitate six folks commencing Harkat-ul-Mujaheedin
too exterminated in Osama’s encampments in outcome of the United states of
America meticulousness molest. Harkaat-ul-Mujaaheedin with the aim of moment be
a prominent jihadi element in Indian occupied Kashmir and the leader Faazl-ur-Rehman
Khaalil who be a close-up friend of Osama. The Indian outfit legally
responsible to Faazl-ur-Rehman has also next the way of his intimate companion
Osama Bin Ladin carried out assault at U.S territory along with new realms inside
the West. The Harkaat-u-Mujaaheedin here in 1995 was also accused for abduction
of five tourists who were later executed and used a fake name of Al-Faran.to disguise.9

In the wake
of American state of mind towards Taliban and Bin Laden, India overstated the Taliban
risks and threats in the region and connected Kashmiri militancy with Osama Bin
Laden ideology. Likewise, criticism and condemnation on Taliban and Kashmiri
freedom moment turned into a recurrent subject in Indian media and official
stance. The objective was to connect terrorism 
with Kashmir struggle with the intention to get support of western
nations in favor of India. And the result was firmly visible result
after 1999 where US government and international think tanks started connecting
terrorism with Kashmir freedom movement.

Presslers Amendment and
Pakistan’s Concerns

The US congress passed the Presslers
amendment in 1985. About a year before the amendment was passed, in 1984 the
foreign relation committee adopted an amendment proposed by the Democrat
senators, Alan Cranston and John Glenn who were quite unadorned suggesting it
mandatory for the US President to certify that Pakistan do not possess the nuclear
explosive devise neither developing, nor acquiring a nuclear explosive device,
failure which Pakistan will barred to acquire the military hardware. These
restrictions were initiated in 1990.  During the cold war era Pakistan was considered
strong American ally but after the Russian withdrawal from Afghanistan a major
shift was seen in the US policy towards Pakistan. The US government exerted
pressure on Pakistan to unilaterally sign non-nuclear proliferation (NPT) and
abandon its nuclear program. After the dismemberment of Soviet Union, United
States was no longer seems interested in maintaining the same level of strategic
relations with Pakistan. Per Presslers Amendment Pakistan was striped for any
further American economy and armed assistance. America disqualified the delivery
of military gear’s worth $ 367 million and moreover banned twenty-eight F-16’s
for which Pakistan had paid in advance. Pak-US relations were nose dive and the
only thing left in collaboration was Somalian peace keeping missions. This was
a major shift after the post-cold war relations between two countries.

crises and American stance

The Kargil
conflict of 1999 amongst India and Pakistan additionally gave the United States
a chance to assume a positive part in the subcontinent by calling a withdrawal
of Pakistani infiltrators from over the Line of Control in Kashmir. Afterward,
the visit of the American President Bill Clinton to India in March 2000
signified a noteworthy change in American foreign policy arrangement by
undertaking a five day visit to India and only few hours’ transit in Pakistan,
the Clinton admiration made it very clear that its concerns inside South Asia
is deeply connected with realigning its relations with India. The United States
acknowledged that India, the biggest democracy on the planet and a possibly
imperative economy couldn’t be compared with Pakistan, a nation, one seventh
the measure of India and confronting serious economic issues and in addition
endless political unsteadiness.

1 Kenneth Waltz,
“Realist Thought and Neorealist Theory,” Journal of
International Affairs 44, no.1 (March 1990).

2John J. Mearsheimer, The Tragedy of Great Power Politics (New
York: W.W.Norton, 2001), 149–173.

3US policy towards India and Pakistan. National security decision
directive 147. The White House. October 11, 1984.

4H.R. 5368. Foreign operations, export financing and related programs
appropriations act, 1993. Sec. 620 F Nuclear non-proliferation policy in South

5US policy towards South Asia in the Post-cold war era. Taipei:
Sheng-Chih Book Co.Ltd., 2003. URL: http://www2.tku.edu.tw/ti/Journal/8.

6US Security policy toward South Asia after September 11th and its
implications for China: a Chinese Perspective, Zhang Guihong, Zhejing

7The Washington Post, June 7, 1989, A4.

8US policy towards India and Pakistan. National security decision
directive 147. The White House. October 11, 1984. URL: http://www.fas.org/irp/offdocs/nsdd/nsdd-147.pdf (???? ?????????: 12.01.2011).

Madhurendra, American Strategy in South Asia From Cold War to Post-Cold War, The
Indian Journal of

Political Science, 67(3),
605-616 (2006)