A expression in autobiographical memory. Even though

A complex mental system known as (AM) or
autobiographical memory, allows persons to recollect information, events, and
experiences from their past (Williams, Conway, & Cohen, 2008; as cited in
Prebble, Addis, & Tippett, 2013). For some individual, or at least in some
circumstances, the memory that uses as reflective, such focus is likely to have
longer terms value if it is focused on more negative content. (Watkins, 2008).
Autobiographical memory acts significantly in self or identity function, we
reminisce because our memories tell us about who we are, as an individual that
is consistent across time. (Bluck & Alea, 2008; Conway, 2005; Wilson &
Ross, 2010; as cited in Harris, Rasmussen & Berntsen, 2014).  In addition, the memories serve an important
function in problem-solving as well. Pillemer (2003) indicated that we recall
the past, in order to learn a lesson, to solve existing problem, or to motivate
and planning future as well as adjusting one’s behavior accordingly.


Interestingly, autobiographical memory found to
be gendered. Typically, women are considered superior in remembering compared
to men. Gender has emerged as a critical feature, thus, it became an imperative
topic on individual differences in elaborated emotional expression in
autobiographical memory. Even though not all AM studies find gender
differences, a clear pattern is noticed in emotional expressivity especially
when gender differences are discussed. Grysman and Hudson (2013) mentioned that
across a variety of studies and methods, females are more detailed, elaborated,
relational, and emotionally expressive than males when it comes to
autobiographical memories. Furthermore, Heron et al., (2012) stated that women
recall a higher number of specific memories than men when it comes to the
comparison in the functioning of autobiography memory (as cited in Trives,
Bravo, Postigo, Segura, & Watkins, 2016). Are women express more
emotionally than men? This study aims to examine gender difference in emotional
intensity of autobiographical memory.

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many years, people have discussed the popular research on autobiographical
memory but gender differences emerged as a critical factor. This topic has
received less interest in the research field when they are, it produced an
inconsistent result. There is not much evidence in this area as the experiment
of emotional intensity are also less commonly conducted. When they are, the
emotional intensity does not always show consistency in gender distinction
(Chaplin & Aldo, 2013). For example, Else-Quest, Higgins, Allison, and
Morton, (2012) conducted a meta-analysis of gender differences in the self-
conscious emotions, which are gender stereotyped in that men are expected to
experience more pride, whereas women are expected to experience more guilt,
shame, and embarrassment. Contrary to the stereotypes, embarrassment (d=
?0.08), authentic pride (d= ?0.01), and hubristic pride (d= ?0.09) are seen to
be higher in males than in females, and the results indicated small differences
in females for guilt (d= ?0.27) and shame (d= ?0.29).


is also a problematic issue when an individual is linked with stereotypical
view that may lead to gender biases. It has always been a kind of typical
perspective that “boys don’t cry” and “girls are likely to use more emotion”
that can lead to impaired social functioning. In Western cultures, the belief
that females are more emotional than males is one of the strongest gender
stereotypes held, for example, people may nonetheless interpret women leader’s
behavior as “emotional” and thereby see them as irrational and incompetent
leaders even in a situation where they are not explicitly express emotions.
(Shields, 2002; as cited in Brescoll, 2016). To support this idea, a research
conducted to discuss how gender stereotypes of emotion lead to biased
evaluations of female leaders. The researcher stated that when people read
about either a male or female leader making a decision, they view male leaders
as being more favorable and detached from emotions when making the identical
decision to those of the female leaders despite the fact that emotion (whether
it expressed or felt) was not mentioned at all in. They then spontaneously draw
the conclusion that the female leader’s decision was driven by emotion.
(Brescoll, 2016). Thus, this perceptual bias could have significant
consequences towards female leaders as they are perceived to have a high level
of emotions than male leaders.