Elevation in blood pressure is a very common coronary artery disease and approximately more than one billion individuals have been affected by hypertension worldwide (1). Incidence of high blood pressure defer with individual age, race, life style, and other factors. Furthermore, data indicate that about 30% to 45% of individuals could get affected by hypertension, and this percentage is in rise with aging (2). On the other hand, the committee of American Heart Association (AHA) and the committee of Stroke reported that the incidence of the systematic elevation in blood pressure in the US is around 64% in elderly males and 78% in elderly females (3). Moreover, hypertension leads to many health complications such as heart arrest and angina pectoris (4). Many factors are associated with the incidence of high blood pressure. Those factors are: intrauterine malnutrition, genetics, increase in body weight, diabetes mellitus, high sodium diet, insufficient intake of calcium, potassium and magnesium, lack of exercise, high alcohol intakes, smoking, drug addiction, emotional stress, and contraceptives drugs abuse (5, 6).
Although many medications and therapies have been used to treat hypertension, they usually associate with various health complications. Therefore, using natural bioactive compounds from food products are promising alternative approach. Bioactive peptides have been investigated for their activities against various diseases. Some peptides are studied to reduce hypertension and its complications. Antihypertensive bioactive peptides have advantages of better safety, high activity and sensitivity, and low cost. The activity of antihypertension peptides could be attributed to their interactions with different cellular mechanisms and biochemical pathways including the renin-angiotensin (RAS), endothelin (ET), nitric oxide (NO), and prostaglandin systems. In this review, the purpose is to summarize and discuss the biochemical interactions between antihypertensive peptides with various cellular pathways in biological systems.