1. position or to resume to this

1.  
INTRODUCTION

This
report will present information about the Handymax Bulk carriers that are
between 40,000 and 55,000 deadweight tonnes (DWT). Generally, the Handymax
vessels have capacity under than 60,000 DWT (maritime-connector.com, 2007). Handymax
Bulk carriers are the majority of ocean
going cargo vessels in the world, this is because of their small size that
makes it easier for them to access the majority of the ports, even those who
have restrictions to the length or draught or ports lacking transshipment infrastructure. Handymax vessel are usually 150 to 200 meters
long and are geared with four cranes that are capable of lifting 30 tonnes,
they have 5 cargo holders and the are mainly built to carry small amounts of
dry bulk to ports that are not easily accessible. The handymax vessels are
built in mainly in Asian shipyards such as China, Japan and South Korea (maritime-connector.com,
2007). The first idea of bulk carriers to help people transfer ores, food
grains and minerals was at the 1950s, lots of significant changes have been
made to the vessels since that have advanced the vessels (marineinsight.com,
2016).

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2.  
TYPES OF BULK CARRIERS

There
are four main Bulk carrier types. The Bulk carrier’s subcategories are the
following.

• Bulk Carrier also known as “Graneleiro” (geared) that can
be with or without equipment for self-loading and unloading

 • Ore Carrier known
as “Mineraleiro” with stowage factors of about 0.34 to 0.51 m3/t. The ore
carriers carry all the minerals.

 • Cement Carrier (Cimenteiro)
have a stowage factors of about 0.79 – 0.83 m3/t

 • Great Lakes known also as Bulkers Lakers are
ships that operate in the region of the Great Lakes of US and Canada, that are
limited by the maximum width of the St. Lawrence Canal which is 22.80 meters. These
ships are characterized for their special design and by being self-unloaders using
buckets and conveyors, having a large number of cargo holds and hatches and total
capacity of about 26,000 – 38,000 DWT. (mar.ist.utl.pt, 2010 & marineinsight.com,
2016).

 

3.  
STABILITY

The stability of a vessel in general is the ability that it
has to maintain an upright position or to resume to this after a disturbance.
For the seaworthiness of an undamaged vessel it is sufficient to investigate
the stability in the transverse direction. This depends on the position of two
points related to each other, the center of gravity and the transverse metacenter.
The center of gravity above keel depends on the dissemination of cargo in the
vessel. In the event of critical loading conditions such as consumed stores or
“iced” vessel, the positive stability can be achieved by filling the
double bottom tanks (Stability Information Manual, 2006 p4-1). There is also
another type of stability, grain stability, which is used when the vessels are
loaded with grains such as seeds, peas and beans that can change the stability
(nautinst.org, 2006).

The stability of the vessel is one of the main concern for
the owners, because the misplacement of the cargo can lead the vessel to hog
and sag (pic.1), AS WELL AS TO tip over and cause damages to the vessel or sink
causing a big economical problem to the company and the owner. This is why the
stowage plan is really important and takes a lot of time (officerofthewatch.com,
2012).

PICTURE 1: HOGGING AND SAGGING

Source:
officerofthewatch (2012)

 

4.  
IMO REGULATIONS

In
1998, IMO introduced some new safety measurements that made a big change to the
way they bulk carriers where made. They changed the structural, for new bulk carriers it is a
requirement that the vessel can withstand the flooding of any one hold and remain
afloat. Double hulls where also introduced around that time, all bulk carriers should
have loading gear able to provide information on hull different forces and
bending moments. An important requirement is also that ships should not be
allowed to load high density bulk cargoes until they get under further research.
As a substitute to structural reinforcements, is an option for loading cargo that
it similar to others. In 2002, it was proposed for the vessels to have high level
alarms and monitoring systems. The IMSBC Code will replace the Code of
Safe Practice for Solid Bulk Cargoes (BC Code), which was first adopted as a
recommendatory code in 1965 and has been updated at regular intervals since
then.

CONCLUSION