1. – No president – No national

were the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation?

had trouble passing laws

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 9 out of 13 states had to agree

states and big states had the same amount of representatives


national courts or armies


was the importance of Shay’s Rebellion?

It is seen as the basis for a new
constitution. It lead to the thought of future rebellions and a stricter
constitution. It lead to a stronger national government and lead to the
constitution to be revised.


the problem of representation at the Constitutional Convention.  Mention
the 3 major plans proposed.

-who was going to be represented in
the constitution

– The Virginia Plan (Randolph)-
proposed a bicameral legislative branch

-The New Jersey Plan (Paterson)-
proposed that each state get one vote

– Hamilton Plan- argued for a strong
centralized government.

The size of the government was one
major issue being discussed whether to make is unicameral or bicameral,
representation in states.


was slavery dealt with at the Convention?

They were represented as 3/5th
or the population.


Separation of Powers.  How does the War Powers Act & the Budget
Impoundment Act exemplify this concept?

Separation of power is when powers
are divided into legislature branch, executive branch, and judicial branch. The
war powers act limits the power of the president to enact in war. It has to go
through other branches in order to be approved limiting the power of each
branch and giving them each a specific power. The budget impoundment limited
the budget of each branch


as many effects of divided government that you can think of.  What are the
methods that a president can use to overcome these barriers?

Divided government: all political,
political parties, the house, senate, and president are all not the same party is
a divided government

compromise to his views to fit the others views






Checks & Balances.  How does each branch check and balance each other?

Makes sure that no branch has more
power than the other, and gave certain branches specific powers. The
legislative branch makes laws, but the president (executive branch) can veto
it, and the Judicial branch can rule that unconstitutional. 



Federalist 51.  What was the major discussion in this?

Advocating the separation of the
government and discussed how to appropriately apply checks and balances in
order to prevent one branch from being more powerful than the other.



were the arguments from the Federalists and Anti-Federalists?


Federalist wanted a strong national
government and to ratify the constitution. Anti- Federalists wanted a strong
state and local government, and a bill of rights. The Federalists wanted the
checks and balances system




10.  What are the Amendment processes for
revising the Constitution? (Article V)

In order for congress to propose an
amendment 2/3rds of each house of congress must vote it necessary and 3/4th
of the states must ratify it.





11.  What are some Informal processes to
amend the Constitution?

Judicial review, actions taken by
the President, key decisions of the Supreme Court, and the activities of
political parties


12.  What is the importance of being able
to amend the Constitution?  Why does it seem difficult to do then?

Amending the Constitution allows for
the laws to be up to date and current. It is a difficult process to do because
it requires for a majority of people to be on the same side and agree on
issues. It is a long process that takes a lot of time as well. When the
majority doesn’t agree on an issue then it never gets passed on.



13.  Define Federalism.  Compare
cooperative v. dual federalism.

Federalism is the federal principle
or system of government. Cooperative federalism is when national, state, and
local governments interact cooperatively to solve issues together. Dual
federalism is political arrangement where power is divided between state and
national government.




14.  What is the importance of McCulloch
v. Maryland, Gibbons v. Ogden, and US v. Lopez when discussing Federalism?

McCulloch v. Maryland: Supreme Court ruled that states
had no right to interfere with federal institutions within their borders and
that a national bank was constitutional; strengthened federal power. It gave
more power to the national government which disrupted the balance of the state
and national government being equal. Determined that congress has implied
powers other than those listed in the constitution.


Gibbons v. Ogden: Supreme Court decision that ruled
that the Constitution gave control of interstate commerce to the U.S. Congress,
not the individual states through which a route passed. That disrupted the
power of them being equal as well because Congress could control commerce
through the states, not the state government.


US v. Lopez: Gun Free School Zones Act exceeded
Congress’ authority to regulate interstate commerce. Limits Congress’ power
under the Commerce Clause of the US.


15.  Describe how the 10th
Amendment & Commerce Clause, & Elastic Clause play a role with

10th Amendment states
that powers not delegated to the national government are given to the power of
the local and state governments. The Commerce Clause gives congress the power
to :regulate Commerece with foreign nations” The Elastic Clause, the necessary and
proper clause, it deems Congress the power to pass all laws to carry out the
enumerated list of powers. The Commerce Clause and the Elastic Clause give
power to the national government while the 10th Amendment gives
power to the local and state government.





16.  What are some Enumerated Powers,
Reserved Powers, and Concurrent Powers?

Enumerated Powers of the government
include coining money, declaring war, and regulation foreign and interstate
commerce. Reserved powers include dealing with education and determining the
speed limit. Concurrent Powers include power to tax, build roads, establish
bankruptcy laws, and create lower courts.



17.  Define conditions of aid.  Give
an example.

Conditions of aid are federal rules
attached to the grants that states receive. The states must agree in order to
get the aid. Example, medical aid, building roads


18.  Compare Grants-in-aid, Categorical
grants, Block grants, and Revenue sharing.

Grant-in-aid federal funds provided
to states and localities. These are typically provided for airports, highways,
education, and major welfare services.


initiative Categorical grants issued
by Congress for specific purpose. Block grants are grants from a national
government to states for specific problems. A law providing for the distribution
of a fixed amount or share of federal tax revenues to the states for spending
on almost any government purpose.


19.  Define Mandates and unfunded
mandates.  Name a few examples of each that we studied.

A Mandate is rules imposed by the federal government on the
states as conditions for obtaining federal grants or requirements that the states
pay the costs of certain nationally defined programs. Unfunded mandate is a
statute or regulation that requires a state or local government to perform
certain actions, with no money provided for fulfilling the requirements. Medicaid
is an example of a funded mandate.