• developing countries, with more than 60%

•         In the last few decades, use efficiencies of N, P and K fertilizers remained continual as 30-35%, 18-20% and 35-40%, respectively, leaving a main portion of added fertilizers hold in the soil or leaching to aquatic system causing pollution.

•         Agricultural sector is constantly the backbone of most developing countries, with more than 60% of the population reliant on it for their livelihood, in the same times there are many challenges facing agriculture sector, such as climate change, non-wise use of resources, malnutrition, and used more chemical fertilizers than required.

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•         Wherever, sustainable agriculture has been concerned in excessive use of common chemical fertilizers.

•         Nanotechnology is emerging out as the sixth revolutionary technology in the current era, it’s considered as an emerging field of science widely exploited in many scientific fields but there is shortage in scientific studies about its application in agricultural sector in the world, wherever supposed nanotechnology playing a major role in the field of agriculture and food science in next era (Mousavi and Rezaei 2011),

•         The term “Nanotechnology” was first used by Norio Taniguchi in 1974, though it was not widely known.The word “Nanotechnology” has originated from a Greek word ‘nanos’ which means “dwarf”. Nanotechnology is defined as understanding and control of matter at dimensions of roughly 1-100 nm, where unique physical properties make novel applications possible (EPA, 2007).

•         Nanotechnology is an emerging multidisciplinary technique that involves application based on the synthesis of molecules in nano-scale size range.

•         Nanotechnology is working with the smallest possible particles which increase hopes for improving agricultural productivity through encountering problems unsolved conventionally.

•         Improvement of crops in agriculture is a continuous process. In the management aspects, efforts are made to increase the efficiency of applied fertilizer with the help of nano fertilizers to restoration of soil fertility by releasing fixed nutrients.

•         From other side, nanotechnologies offer many opportunities for innovation; the use of nanomaterial in agricultural sector has also raised a number of safeties, environmental and regulatory issues.

•         Nanotechnology employs nanoparticles (NPs) having one or more dimensions in the order of 100 nm or less (Auffan et al., 2009).

•         The nanotechnology applications have the potential to change agricultural production by allowing better management and conservation of inputs of plant and animal production.

•         Nano materials has found potential applications in controlling nutrient release and availability, characterization of soil minerals, weathering of soil minerals and development, nature of soil rhizosphere, nutrient ion transport in soil plant system, emission of dusts and aerosols from agricultural soils and their nature, soil and water conservation, water treatment and efficient management, remediation of soils and water pollution and precision farming.

•         There are different Nano products and applications used in agricultural sector like nano-fertilizers, nano-pesticides, nano-herbicides, nanosensors, veterinary care, fisheries and aquaculture, detection of nutrient deficiencies, photo catalysis, Nano barcode, and recalcitrant contaminants from water, etc.

•         It has been reported that coating and binding of nano and sub nano-composites are capable to regulate the release of nutrients from the fertilizer capsule (Liu X, Feng Z, Zhang S, Zhang J, Xiao Q, et al. (2006).

The nano-fertilizers have high surface area, sorption capacity, and controlled-release kinetics to targeted sites attributing them as smart delivery system.